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Tyumen is the administrative center of the Tyumen region
Tyumen city is located on the West Siberian plain, on the river Tura, a tributary of the Irtysh.
Geographical position — 57°09' n, 65°32' e
The distance from Moscow is 2144 km.
Modern Tyumen is a large industrial center, the city of science, culture and sport. In recent years the city has significantly changed. Built new residential areas, built roads, bridges, widened streets.
Founded by Governor Vasily Sukin and Ivan Myasny in July 1586 on the site of the ancient city, the capital of Tyumen khanate.
The city of Tyumen was founded as an Outpost of the development of Siberia and the Far East. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the main population of service people. In the 1st third of the XVII century often raided by nomads, as reflected in the "Tale about Tara and Tyumen" (1634). A century after the founding of Tyumen there were about 2 thousand people. In October 1695 the wooden city burned down, then was develop of stone construction. From stone structures of that time preserved a complex of buildings of the Trinity monastery.
In the beginning of the XVIII century Tyumen was a major transit point for trade, the town was crossed by trade routes from China and Siberia to the Central Russia. Wide development has received forge, bell, and soap production. Tyumen is famous for production of furniture and other wood products. In 1763 there lived 6593, of whom 317 were artisans. During this period, the Tyumen was known by leather industries. They were processed in small workshops, clinging to the shore Tours. The skin and the products she carried at the Irbit fair, supplied to the army, were sold abroad.
By the early nineteenth Tyumen is an important center of manufacturing. In 1836, in Tyumen was launched first in Siberia steamship. The city became one of Russia's largest databases of river shipbuilding. The economic value of Tyumen and development of steam navigation and the construction in 1885 of the railway has increased. In 1868 was founded a brewery N. M. Davidovsky, Tyumen beer "Culberson", "Extra", "Desk", etc. were considered the best in the Urals, it was noted at the international exhibitions. Fruit drinks made on the basis of local mineral water, received the gold medal in Brussels and Madrid. By the end of the XIX century, the city was well-developed shipbuilding. In 1913, in the Ob-Irtysh basin went 191 steam ship, of which 135 were collected in Tyumen. Developed forestry, fisheries, canning industries, carpet manufacturing cartage. The economic value of Tyumen has increased with the construction in 1912 of the railway to Omsk.
A contemporary wrote about Tyumen that "such a diverse industry, we will not see in any other area of Siberia." By the early twentieth century, the number of residents reached 30 thousand and exceeded the population of Tobolsk governorate. Tyumen was a major transshipment point for migrants and exiles, there was an order of exiles registrated and rasselenie them to Siberia. In Tyumen there were 117 factories, including 3 shipyards, 2 steam mills, tanneries 70 institutions and other enterprises. Industrial growth in Tyumen cut housing from the shores Tours and determined the linear development of the city towards the Western suburbs and South-East to the railway.
The discovery of oil and gas in the region has become a new page in the history of Tyumen.
In 1960-70-ies of taiga, marshes and tundra began their development. In 1966 started the construction of the railway Tyumen–Tobolsk–Surgut–Nizhnevartovsk. In 1967 created the Tyumen Department of civil aviation. Many companies have started to work on the oil and gas industry. Tyumen aviators brought surveyors, topographers, geologists, drillers, builders of different specialties and equipment into the most inaccessible points. The sailors explored new waterways on the many rivers of Western Siberia. Tyumen has been a source and transit point for the delivery of goods to the North. At this time the city has built new specialized companies, design institutes, institutions of higher education. In 1970 on the streets of Tyumen appeared first trolleybus, in 1973 the open University.